Title: Occurrence and distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in anthropogenically affected groundwater 
Resource Type: document --> technical publication --> journal article 
Country: Germany 
Year: 2011 
Availability: Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 13: 347-354 
Author 1/Producer: Regnery, J. 
Other Authors/Producers: Püttmann, W., Merz, C. and Berthold, G 
Author / Producer Type: University research group / research institute 
Article Weblink (=direct link): http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2011/em/c0em00 ...  
EUGRIS Keyword(s): Contaminated land-->Contaminants-->Others
Diffuse pollution-->Contaminants-->Pesticides
Groundwater protection-->Groundwater protection overview
Water resources and their management -->Stresses, quality and ecological status
Short description: Organophosphates (OPs) used to protect materials from fire and in other industrial processes have affected the quality of groundwater, particularly in urban areas and near landfill sites, according to recent research. In 2006, it was estimated that the EU consumed 91,000 metric tonnes of OP-based compounds in manufacturing processes. OPs containing chlorine, such as tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) have a wide range of usage to reduce the flammability of materials: for example, added as flame retardants to polyurethane foam, used in furniture and building materials. Non-chlorinated OPs, such as tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP), and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) are used to increase the flexibility of materials, as antifoaming or flame retarding agents, and as additives to hydraulic fluids and lubricants. Previous research has suggested that some of these OPs can be harmful to human and ecological health. TnBP, TCEP, and TDCP are known to potentially cause cancer in animals, for example. 
Submitted By: Professor Paul Bardos WhoDoesWhat?      Last update: 02/06/2011

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