Title: Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: New era, new challenges 
Resource Type: document --> technical publication --> journal article 
Country: Denmark 
Year: 2011 
Availability: Journal of Environmental Management 92 (2011) 185e194 
Author 1/Producer: Martin Rygaard 
Other Authors/Producers: Philip J. Binning, Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen 
Author / Producer Type: University research group / research institute 
Article Weblink (=direct link): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6WJ ...  
EUGRIS Keyword(s): Water and sanitation-->Water supply
Water resources and their management -->Water resources and their management Overview
Short description: EXTRACT: Urban water supplies are traditionally based on limited freshwater resources located outside the cities. However, a range of concepts and techniques to exploit alternative water resources has gained ground as water demands begin to exceed the freshwater available to cities. Based on 113 cases and 15 in-depth case studies, solutions used to increase water self-sufficiency in urban areas are analyzed. The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high quality water demands and commercial and institutional pressures. Case studies demonstrate increases in self-sufficiency ratios to as much as 80% with contributions from recycled water, seawater desalination and rainwater collection. 
Submitted By: Professor Paul Bardos WhoDoesWhat?      Last update: 25/09/2011

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